Thankfully, learning when to use a comma before and after which is actually pretty easy when you follow several … When a conjunction (for example: and, or, and but) links two independent clauses, you need to put a comma before the conjunction. If the two independent clauses are short and have a strong connection, then the comma should be omitted. The dog is well trained, and good natured. Sign in to access your personalized homepage, follow authors and topics you love, and clap for stories that matter to you. When a comma is used before the conjunction in a list, it is known as an Oxford Comma. Use a comma after the first independent clause when you link two independent clauses with one of the following coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. We help brands stay relevant and gain visibility in search results. If you add an and after the comma, the sentence becomes grammatically correct. You usually put a comma before and when it’s connecting two independent clauses. The answer is A. AP Stylebook recommends using Oxford comma only when necessary to preserve a sentence's meaning. Or if you’re using it in lists that require an Oxford comma. The comma before … Case 2 In other words, it can stand alone as a sentence. When creating a list of three or more simple words, items, or concepts, use a comma to separate each word or word group. Sometimes we may see a comma before and(or another coordinating conjunction) that is appropriate for a reason unrelated to that conjunction. They may be removed from a sentence without altering its meaning. You have been successfully subscribed to the Grammarly blog. Writing, grammar, and communication tips for your inbox. Use commas after introductory a) clauses, b) phrases, or c) words that come before the main clause. , First AI web content optimization platform just for writers, When To Use Comma Before Such As: The Definitive Guide, Whether you’re using an Oxford (or serial) comma. Use commas when writing a list of at least three words, phrases or clauses in a sentence. Do you know the comma before “and” is known by the following names: Oxford Comma Harvard Comma Serial Comma Series Comma Here I’m gonna share the best practice to learn the Oxford comma that I … 2. By understanding when to use a comma before and, you can add structure and clarity to sentences. There is no risk of confusion when you’re speaking of … Using a comma before “who” for additional information If “who” is not acting as a restrictive clause, the most likely use of it in a sentence is to provide additional information. Don’t use a comma before and when one of the clauses it’s connecting is a dependent clause. They’re also important. We can put a comma before and in a list where we list three or more items. EXAMPLES: For example: For example: I am going … If the independent clauses contain commas, it is possible to use a semicolon instead of a comma before the conjunction. However, this is quite an outdated practice, but you can use it if you think it makes your sentence structure clearer. If you are using “therefore” in the middle of a sentence to separate 2 independent clauses, then you will need to use a semicolon. That means it’s a dependent clause, so we should not use a comma before and. A comma is required after the final word of the first clause, before and (or whatever conjunction you’re using). When you have two independent clauses joined together by and, most style guides say that it’s OK to leave the comma out as long as the two independent clauses are very short and closely connected. The word “thereby” could be used … Insert a comma before the coordinating conjunction. Use a comma before and after, however, moreover, furthermore, and therefore. The Comma. The answer is D. Commas should be used when joining two independent clauses, compiling a list, or introducing direct quotations. Second, using the serial comma - a comma before "and" or "or" in a series of three or more items (a, b, and c) - is a matter of style. Commas Before and in a Series. Grammarly catches misplaced commas and other writing issues. Commas can separate adjectives, offset nonessential phrases, and introduce direct … Comma Before 'And' & 'So' Although commas are used in many different ways, in this video we're only going to address the use of commas with the conjunctions 'and' and 'so.' There are some rare exceptions though, where the ‘Oxford … When you use more than one adjective to modify a noun or pronoun, use commas to separate them. Use commas to separate independent clauses when they are joined by any of these seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. A writer may choose to place a comma before and(or any conjunction) when the conjunction launches such a phrase: 1. In the example above, the serial comma is the one that separates birds from the and. Sarah told him again, and really meant it this time, to turn off the television. Commas can be used to set apart phrases that interrupt the flow of a sentence. Commas Before And are used primarily in two specific situations: An independent clause is a phrase that expresses a complete thought. The first clause, Sam tossed the ball could stand on its own as a complete sentence, which means it’s an independent clause. This punctuation sits immediately after the list’s next-to-last item, just before the and or the or. There was a time when this sentence would be punctuated exactly this way. (Isn’t there always?) The AP style reserves the right to use it if necessary. Commas should be used before and when joining two independent clauses or when compiling a list. There is a comma before the conjunction (but), and the nonessential comment (in the end) is set off with a pair of commas. The proper place for the comma is before the conjunction. Unfortunately, the answer isn’t entirely so black and white. Because … Last year, PLC provided the material; and we, L&S Ltd, built the road. Sam, and Sarah take excellent care of their pets. Well, appropriately enough, the Oxford Dictionary has the answer. Despite popular belief, the rules for using commas in a sentence don’t depend on what comes before or after a specific word.. Another common misconception is that you need a comma any time you would pause when speaking. Example: I would like to order a salad, a sandwich, and dessert. “Whereas” is also used in legal documents in the sense of “because of the … 2. If a sentence contains nonessential words, phrases, or clauses, use commas to set them apart. The answer is B. Here’s an example: It’s not wrong to add a comma before and in the sentence above, but doing so might make the sentence a little choppy. Place a comma between each item in the list, unless you are writing in Associated Press style. The argument of economy raises questions of confusing the reader with unnecessary punctuation. But the second clause, watched the dog chase it, can’t stand by itself as a complete sentence. Consider this sentence, for example:Without the serial comma, the individual series items are difficult to identify. In other words, there is virtually never a comma before “that”, unless there is some other reason to use a comma, such as another non-essential subordinate clause ending there. if you remove the "and" you will be left with two complete sentences), or if you're using it as an Oxford comma. In general terms, a comma falls under the category of a punctuation mark. Both are correct, as commas must be used after every clause, except the one that comes before ‘and’. An independent clause can stand alone. This is because the sentence is talking about a particular person John. Take a breath. Let Krista Grace Morris know how much you appreciate this article by clicking the heart icon and by sharing this article on social media. Commas are almost always used to separate items in a list or series that contains three or more things. The truth is that the purpose of a comma is to provide clarity to a sentence by removing any possible ambiguity or confusion. The dog is young, well trained and good natured. And that no, you don’t enjoy cooking your friends and cats. Commas can be confusing. The answer is C. The Oxford comma comes immediately before an "and" in a list. In that case, you would not place a comma before … Consider this sentence, for example: It’s cold outside, and I can’t find my coat. For example, we use a pair of commas to enclose a phrase that interrupts a clause or that functions parenthetically. A lot of people have strong feelings about putting a comma before and in a list. Sam tossed the ball and watched the dog chase it. Let’s take a closer look at each of these rules. 2. Don’t switch back and forth in the same document between using the Oxford comma and not using it. The answer is TRUE. The rule is – either have the commas both before and after a name, or don’t add it at all. The comma (,) is very frequently used and very frequently used wrongly.In fact, the rules for using commas are really rather simple, though complicated by the fact that the comma has four … When a comma is used immediately before an and in a list, it’s called an Oxford comma. Should you put a comma before and is a question that requires a straightforward answer. In a nutshell, we use commas to: Whew! Others refer to it as a serial comma or Harvard comma. Krista heads up Marketing and Content Creation here at INK. This probably the first use of commas you learned in school: separating items in a list of three or more things. Today, … The sentence above contains two independent clauses (highlighted in green), so it requires a comma before and. These nonessential sections often begin with words such as who or which. Eliminate errors, get topic ideas, increase productivity, and outrank your competition with the #1 smartest content editor — INK. If the Chicago Manual of Style is more your thing, you should always include it for clarity. (Without the conjunction, two independent clauses typically form a run-on sentence). Want to learn about other ways to use a comma? If you join them together with only a comma, they form a comma splice. When we use and to join two sentences that relate to each other – or independent clauses, it requires a comma before … (There are a few exceptions that require you to use the Oxford comma in a list, but they are pretty rare.) If you follow the AP style, you would probably delete the comma it out of economy. By using our site you agree to our privacy policy. Joining two independent clauses. In fact, the Oxford comma is a hotly debated point in modern grammar, and ultimately, it comes down to a stylistic choice. When it comes to grammatical conundrums, commas are often the culprit. Certain style guides, such as the AP Stylebook, don’t advocate using this serial comma unless it’s absolutely necessary for preserving a sentence’s meaning. Many writers (even good ones) forget to put a comma before the word as when one is needed (or they use a comma when they shouldn’t). Check out our general guide to comma usage. 1. The word can be used as part of a nonrestrictive phrase, restrictive phrase, or prepositional phrase, and it can be used as an interrogative word. When directly addressing a person, use a comma to set off their name, nickname, title, or term of endearment. It is, furthermore, out of my … More specifically, some lists contain a comma that’s known as the Oxford comma. Use a Comma After an Introductory Word or Phrase. From Linguistics and History to puns and memes, she's interested in the systems we create to share our ideas with each other. (By the way, you can tell they’re independent clauses because each one could stand on its own as a complete sentence.). Use a comma after the final word of the first clause, before “and.”. The dog is young, well trained, and good natured. You should only use the comma in series of three or more. The comma here improves legibility and is a better representation of spoken language (there is usually a pause before “whereas”). 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On the age-old question of whether to use a comma splice once, to turn off the television example! Conjunction such as who or which makes your sentence structure clearer Creation here at INK example, we have independent!, just before the word, and dessert Krista Grace Morris know much... Comma should precede and with three or more things ambiguity or confusion feel a! S typically needed when the conjunction proper … commas should be used to indicate a pause a. Means it ’ s important to use it if you ’ re mentioning! ’ order is interchangeable ), so it requires a comma, the Oxford Dictionary has the answer C..

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